Infectious diseases have always accompanied humanity, microorganisms are not perceptible to the human eye but are always around us. Most microorganisms, both viruses and bacteria, we do not produce disease. But there are some germs that can make us sick as in the case of tuberculosis.
Currently the disease has increased worldwide and international health organizations have released multiple updates for its control and prevention.
Tuberculosis is an infectious disease caused by a specific bacterium in most cases called Mycobacterium tuberculosis.There are several variations of the same bacterium that can cause tuberculosis in individuals with immune deficiencies.
It is a disease for which there is treatment and most people recover from the infection, but at some point in their lives can have a revival. They are left in the stage called latent tuberculosis, that is, no traces or signs of infection, body and have achieved control medications.
The symptoms of tuberculosis are characterized by cough weeks duration in some cases may have expectoration. Besides expelling cough up blood, excessive sweating at night, fatigue, decreased strength, fever above 38 ° C and weight loss are the most common symptoms.
In general people who acquired tuberculosis presenting symptoms varied, with intermittent periods making it difficult to achieve a correct diagnosis. In severe cases of tuberculosis may present with shortness of breath and chest pain.
The presence of cough for longer than two weeks should be enough reason but other symptoms like fever for consultation the doctor will do an exam to rule out tuberculosis is not present.
The disease is spread by direct contact, ie from saliva droplets of very small size reaching the mouth and nose of the other person. Cough person presenting TB contributes to the spread of bacteria in the environment in which it resides.
The medical team may request a variety of exams based on symptoms and clinical severity of the disease presenting the person. It is not always so clear diagnosis but requires other diseases.
To make the diagnosis of tuberculosis sputum examination, spitting, which looked at under a microscope for the presence of TB bacteria is performed.
Sputum is also grown for several days to see if the bacteria grow and definitively confirm the diagnosis. In some countries, a tuberculin skin test is used, but the results are less reliable in addition to the BCG vaccine interferes with their implementation, not being done routinely in countries using the vaccine.
Once the diagnosis of tuberculosis, which is an infection that mainly affects the lungs is achieved. In these organs the bacteria lives, reproduces and spreads through breathing and coughing.
The type of professional medical treatment depends on the clinical status of the person, the more severe is greater measures will be implemented, even with the income to intensive care.
In general the clinical presentations of patients with tuberculosis are not as serious and should intern to start treatment.
It is essential that the person be isolated so that their secretions are not in contact with others who may be infected. Usually found in single rooms are a set of different air circulation, staff medical and health conditions should be used on special robes and masks. The use of masks is essential to prevent the bacteria from spreading, should meet the requirement of being permeable seed.
Tuberculosis is an infection against which the body begins to fight back. The doctor will suggest the use of two or more concurrent antibiotics for a long time, which can become 6 months. Thus it helps the body of the person with tuberculosis to better respond to the aggressor and contribute to its elimination.
The antibiotics are chosen according to the relative resistance of bacteria present in each country as well as the drugs are available. Antibiotic treatment should be intensive for the eradication of tuberculosis infection.
It is essential that the person understands the importance of taking medication as directed by your doctor but relapses may present increased bacterial resistance. Discontinuation of therapy before the deadline exposes the person to a new reinfection.
Keep in mind that the annoying symptoms of tuberculosis usually improve within 2-3 weeks, although they usually do before the week. After initiation of therapy and met for several days reduces the rate of spread of the individual, but still maintaining the measures recommended to avoid infection until the second week of taking antibiotics.
In most people the infection is controlled, through a stage of latent tuberculosis, in which the person has no symptoms. In some situations that can present the person throughout his life, like other infections, TB can be reactivated. Any situation in which the defenses of people are affected can happen reactivation of tuberculosis. Involvement of the immune system determines bacterial reproduction of some TB bacteria left in the body.
In some TB patients has a severe form requiring intensive care to save her life.
In recent decades, the incidence of tuberculosis has increased worldwide by a growing number of people with HIV infection. Infection with this virus determines an attack and decreased immune system that predisposes affected individuals to have more infections, in this case the bacterium that causes tuberculosis. In some patients HIV positive diagnosis is made when presented tuberculosis.
For the prevention of tuberculosis is recommended to avoid close contact with anyone who has plenty of cough in recent weeks. Practice good hygiene such as frequent hand washing. Ventilate the rooms on a daily basis is a good measure against TB bacteria which can not withstand long exposed sunlight.
The BCG vaccine is a vaccine that is used in many countries to prevent severe forms of TB and reduce mortality. It is not very effective in preventing infection of the bacteria especially in its mild form.